4M40 DIESEL ENGINE SHOP MANUAL Intake And Exhaust Caterpillar


Intake And Exhaust
`
1.1. Specifications
2.1. Structure And Operation
3.2. Air Cleaner
4.2. Turbocharger
5.1. Troubleshooting
6.1. General Inspection And Adjustment
7.2. Cleaning And Inspection Of Air Cleaner Element
8.2. Inspection Of Intake Manifold For Looseness
9.2. Inspection Of Exhaust Manifold For Cracks And Gas Leaks
10.2. Inspection Of Turbocharger For Cracks And Gas Leaks
11.2. Looseness Of Turbocharger
12.1. Air Cleaner
13.1. Turbocharger
14.1. Intake Manifold
15.1. Exhaust Manifold

Specifications

Structure And Operation

Air Cleaner

* The air cleaner is a single element type.
* The air cleaner is provided with a vacuator valve.
* When the engine speed drops below a specified level, the vacuator valve is shaken by a consequent change in internal vacuum to automatically force out accumulated water and dust.

Turbocharger

Waste Gate Mechanism

* The waste gate mechanism allows excess exhaust gas to escape from the turbocharger by means of an actuator in order to maintain the boost pressure at an appropriate level. This prevents overrunning of the turbocharger and excessive pressure buildups in the intake manifold.
* The boost pressure is led via a rubber hose from the compressor cover to chamber A in the actuator. When the boost pressure in chamber A is less than the predetermined value, the actuator does not function and the waste gate valve remains closed. All exhaust gas then flows toward the turbine wheel.

* When the boost pressure in chamber A exceeds the predetermined value, the waste gate valve opens, reducing the amount of exhaust gas flowing toward the turbine wheel. As a result, the speed of the compressor wheel, and thus the boost pressure, are reduced.

Operating of Over-Boost Valve

* Over-boost valve operates when the boost pressure increases abnormally because of faulty operation of the waste gate mechanism.
* If boost pressure of over-boost valve increases to become higher than the present value, the excessive boost pressure is discharged into the atmosphere, protecting the engine from excessive boost pressure. When the valve is operating, a pipe-blowing sound is generated.

Troubleshooting

General Inspection And Adjustment

Cleaning And Inspection Of Air Cleaner Element

[Cleaning]

* Blow a jet of compressed air at a pressure not higher than 685 kPa {7 kgf/cm2} against the inside surfaces of the element.
* Move the compressed air jet up and down along all pleats of the filter paper element.


* For the frequency and timing of cleaning, refer to the relevant instruction manual. More frequent cleaning than necessary could damage the element or cause dust and foreign matter to be sucked into the engine.
* Do not strike the element or hit it against another object to remove dust.
* Do not blow compressed air against outside surfaces of the element.

[Inspection]

* Shine some electric light inside the element.
* Replace the element if thin spots or broken parts are evident in the filter paper, or if the packing at the top of the element is damaged. Also replace the element if the dust on the element is damp with oily smoke or soot, regardless of the replacement schedule.

Inspection Of Intake Manifold For Looseness

* Check the intake manifold and air inlet pipe mounting bolts and nuts for looseness. If any loose bolt or nut is found, tighten it to the specified torque. (See INTAKE MANIFOLD.)

Inspection Of Exhaust Manifold For Cracks And Gas Leaks

* Visually check the external appearance of the exhaust manifold for cracks and traces of gas leak. If such damage is found, replace the exhaust manifold. (See EXHAUST MANIFOLD.)
* Check the exhaust manifold mounting nuts for looseness. If any loose nut is found, tighten it to the specified torque. (See EXHAUST MANIFOLD.)

Inspection Of Turbocharger For Cracks And Gas Leaks

* Visually check the external appearance of the turbocharger for cracks and traces of gas leak. If such damage is found, replace the turbocharger. (See TURBOCHARGER.)
* Check the turbocharger mounting bolts and nuts for looseness. If any loose bolt or nut is found, tighten it to the specified torque. (See TURBOCHARGER.)

Looseness Of Turbocharger

* Loosen the clamp which secures the air hose to the turbocharger and disconnect the air hose.

* Turn the end of the compressor wheel shaft by hand. Confirm that the compressor wheel turns smoothly without contacting the compressor cover.
* If any abnormality is found, disassemble and inspect the turbocharger. (See TURBOCHARGER.)

Air Cleaner

Removal Sequence

1 Dust indicator
2 Vacuator valve
3 Cover
4 Element
5 O-ring
6 Case
X: Non-reusable parts

Installation Sequence

Follow the removal sequence in reverse.

Service standards

Tightening torque (Unit: N·m {kgf·m}

Cleaning Procedure

Cleaning: Outer Element

* Blow a jet of compressed air at a pressure not higher than 685 kPa {7 kgf/cm2} against the inside surfaces of the element.
* Move the compressed air jet up and down along all pleats of the filter paper element.

------ WARNING! ------


* For the frequency and timing of cleaning, refer to the relevant instruction manual. More frequent cleaning than necessary could damage the element or cause dust and foreign matter to be sucked into the engine.
* Do not strike the element or hit it against another object to remove dust.
* Do not blow compressed air against outside surfaces of the element.
--------WARNING!------

Inspection Procedure

Inspection: Outer Element

* Shine some electric light inside the element.
* Replace the element if thin spots or broken parts are evident in the filter paper, or if the packing at the top of the element is damaged. Also replace the element if the dust on the element is damp with oily smoke or soot, regardless of the replacement schedule.

Inspection: Operation of dust indicator under specific negative pressure

* Perform the following inspection and, if faulty, replace the dust indicator.
* With no vacuum applied to the dust indicator, take measurement between the terminals 1 and 2. There should be no continuity.
* Gradually apply vacuum to the dust indicator. Measure the vacuum when the continuity is made between the terminals 1 and 2.

Turbocharger

Removal Sequence

1 Turbocharger coupler
2 Gasket
3 Turbocharger insulator B
4 Turbocharger insulator A
5 Oil return pipe
6 Gasket
7 Eyebolt
8 Oil pipe
9 Turbocharger (See later sections.)
10 Gasket
*a: Exhaust manifold
X: Non-reusable parts

Installation Sequence

Follow the removal sequence in reverse.

Tightening torque (Unit: N·m {kgf·m}

Lubricant and/or sealant

Installation Procedure

Installation: Turbocharger

* When installing the turbocharger, pour an appropriate amount of engine oil from the oil port so that each part operates smoothly.

Turbocharger

Disassembly Sequence

1 Hose
2 Actuator
3 Coupling
4 Turbine housing
5 Snap ring
6 Compressor cover
7 O-ring
8 Cartridge assembly
X: Non-resusable parts

Assembly Sequence

Follow the disassembly sequence in reverse.

Service standards (Unit: mm)

Tightening torque (Unit: N·m {kgf·m}

Lubricant and/or sealant

Work Before Removal

Mating Marks

* Draw a line across the coupling, turbine housing, compressor cover, and cartridge assembly. This line will serve as mating marks in the installation procedure.

Removal Procedure

Removal: Turbine housing

------ WARNING! ------


* Tap all around the end of the turbine housing with a rubber hammer or a similar tool, being careful not to damage the turbine housing.
* Do not let the blades of the cartridge assembly hit the turbine housing, as they are easily bent.
--------WARNING!------

Removal: Compressor Cover

------ WARNING! ------


* Tap all around the end of the turbine housing with a rubber hammer or a similar tool, being careful not damage the turbine housing.
* Do not let the blades of the cartridge assembly hit the turbine housing, as they are easily bent.
--------WARNING!------

Work after Disassembly

Cleaning

* Before cleaning the parts, carry out a visual inspection for any marks of burns or wear that may become difficult to find after the cleaning. If any defects are evident, replace the part(s).
* Immerse the disassembled parts in an inflammable solvent (a 5 to 10 aqueous solution of Oil Clean from New Hope Co., Ltd.). Take out the parts from the solvent and dry them with compressed air. If there is any solid matter remaining on the parts, remove them with a plastic scraper or a bristle brush.

------ WARNING! ------


* Do not immerse the cartridge assembly in the solvent. If doing so, O-rings in the cartridge assembly will swell and may adversely affect to the function of the turbocharger.
--------WARNING!------
* Reimmerse the parts in the solvent.
* Dry each part with compressed air.

Inspection Procedure

Inspection: Cartridge Assembly

(1) Visual inspection
* If the turbine wheel or the compressor cover is damaged or does not rotate smoothly, replace the cartridge assembly.
(2) Play in axial directions
* If the measurement exceeds the specified limit, replace the cartridge assembly.
(3) Play in radial directions

* If the measurement exceeds the specified limit, replace the cartridge assembly.

Installation Procedure

Installation: Snap Ring

* Fit the snap ring into the compressor cover with the tapered surface on top.

------ WARNING! ------


* Always keep one hand on the snap ring to prevent it from flying off.
--------WARNING!------

Work after installation

Inspection: Rotation of cartridge assembly

* Turn both wheels of the cartridge assembly to check that they rotate smoothly.
* If anything abnormal is found, disassemble the cartridge assembly and perform necessary service.

Intake Manifold

Disassembly Sequence

1 Cover
2 Gasket
3 Over-Boost valve
4 Intake-Manifold
5 Gasket
X: Non-reusable parts

Assembly Sequence

Follow the disassembly sequence in reverse.

Tightening torque (Unit: N·m {kgf·m}

Exhaust Manifold

Disassembly Sequence

1 Insulator
2 Cover
3 Gasket
4 Insulator
5 Exhaust manifold
6 Gasket
X: Non-reusable parts

Assembly Sequence

Follow the disassembly sequence in reverse.

Tightening torque (Unit: N·m {kgf·m}

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