Never add coolant to an overheated engine; allow the engine to cool first.
Check the specific gravity of the coolant solution frequently in cold weather to ensure adequate protection.
If the machine is to be stored in, or shipped to, an area with freezing temperatures the cooling system must be protected to the lowest expected outside temperature.
All water is corrosive at engine operating temperature. The cooling system should be protected with a 3% to 6% concentration of cooling system conditioner at all times, regardless of the concentration of antifreeze.
Excessive coolant conditioner (greater than the recommended 6% initial fill) together with concentrations of antifreeze greater than 65%, cause a mud-like deposit to form. This may result in radiator tube blockage and overheating.
Do not use liquid AVSpare cooling system conditioner with Dowtherm 209 Full-Fill coolant. Follow recommendations provided with Dowtherm 209 Full-Fill coolant.
Coolant should be drained and replaced every 2000 service hours or 1 year. However, when adding liquid AVSpare cooling system conditioner, or equivalent, every 250 service hours as recommended, the drain period can be extended to 4000 service hours or 2 years.
Clean the cooling system if it is contaminated, if the engine overheats or if foaming is observed in the radiator.
Premix coolant solution to provide protection to the lowest expected outside temperature. Pure undiluted antifreeze will freeze at -23°C (-10°F).
Use clean water that is low in scale forming mineral. Do not use softened water.
Filling at over 20 liters (5 U.S. gallons) per minute can cause air pockets in the cooling system.
After draining and refilling the cooling system, always operate the engine with the radiator cap removed until the coolant level stabilizes. Recheck the coolant level and add coolant as necessary to fill the system.
The engine cooling system is protected to -28°C (-20°F) with a permanent-type antifreeze, when shipped from the factory.
Operate with a thermostat in the cooling system year-round. Overheating will occur without a thermostat.
Cooling System Conditioner Liquid
A 3% to 6% concentration of liquid AVSpare cooling system conditioner, or equivalent, can be maintained by adding conditioner every 250 service hours of operation.
Fill the fuel tank at the end of each day of operation to drive out moist air and to prevent condensation.
Do not fill the tank to the top. Fuel expands as it gets warm and may overflow.
Do not fill the fuel filters with fuel before installing them. Contaminated fuel will cause accelerated wear to the fuel system parts.
Check the fuel level with the dipstick in the filler opening.
Drain the water and sediment from the fuel tank at the start of a shift or after the fuel tank has been filled and allowed to stand for 5 to 10 minutes.
After changing the fuel filter, always prime the fuel system to remove air bubbles from the system.
Drain water and sediment from any fuel storage tank weekly, and before the tank is refilled. This will help prevent water or sediment being pumped from the storage tank into the machine fuel tank.
Use only fuel as recommended in the "Coolant, Fuel and Lubricant Specifications" section of this guide.
Make-up oil added to the hydraulic tank must mix with the oil already in the system. Use only petroleum products unless the system is equipped for use with special products.
If the hydraulic oil becomes cloudy, water or air is entering the system. Water or air in the system will cause pump failure. Drain the fluid, retighten all hydraulic suction line clamps, purge and refill the system. Consult your AVSpare dealer for purging instructions.
If hydraulic system drift is experienced while operating at high outside temperatures, use SAE30 hydraulic oil.
SAE30 IS NOT recommended if start up temperatures will be below 4°C (40°F).
Use of SAE30 hydraulic oil in high temperatures will minimize drift, and increase pump life, at temperatures up to 55°C (125°F).
A mixture of 55% SAE40 and 45% SAE10 oil is the equivalent of SAE30.
The equivalent of SAE30 oil in the hydraulic system can be obtained by draining the SAE10W oil from the tank and refilling with SAE40 oil.
See "Hydraulic System" at "Every 2000 Service Hours or 1 Year" for hydraulic tank drain and refill instructions.
Air Inlet System
Check the precleaner screen daily for accumulation of dust and debris.
Remove any dust and debris as needed.
If the indicator light comes on shortly after installing a cleaned primary element, install another clean element, or a new element.
The primary element can be cleaned up to six times before replacement. The element, when cleaned, should be thoroughly checked for rips or tears in the filter material. Replace the primary element every year, even though it has not been cleaned six times.
The secondary filter element should be replaced at the time the primary filter element is serviced for the third time.
If the indicator light comes on after installation of a clean primary element, or if the exhaust smoke is black, install a new secondary element.
Do not try to reuse the secondary element by cleaning it. Always use a new element.
When jump starting the machine, follow the instructions in the Operation Section to properly start the machine.
When using an external power source to start the machine, turn the disconnect switch off and remove the key before attaching the jumper cables.
This machine has a 24 volt starting system. Use only equal voltage for jump starting. Use of a welder or higher voltage will damage the electrical system.
An emergency starting kit is available for starting from an external power source. It provides a permanent receptacle on the machine to plug in a jumper cable.
Two different cable assemblies are available for auxiliary starting. One for starting from an operating machine (with a receptacle) and one for starting from an auxiliary power pack. Your AVSpare dealer can provide you with the correct cable assemblies for your operation.
Engines installed without engine-to-frame ground straps can be damaged by electrical discharge.
To prevent electrical discharge damage, check to make sure the machine's electrical system has an engine-to-frame ground strap. For machines which have the alternator connected to an engine component, the ground strap must connect that component to the frame.
Some machines have starter-to-frame ground straps. But, many of these starters are not electrically grounded to the engine. They have electrical insulation systems. For this reason, the starter-to-frame ground strap may not be an acceptable ground.
Scheduled Oil Sampling (S·O·S)
Use Scheduled Oil Sampling (S·O·S) to monitor the condition and maintenance requirements of your equipment. Each oil sample should be taken when the oil is warm and well mixed, to ensure that the sample is representative of the oil in the compartment.
NOTE: When using the drain stream to obtain the oil sample, do not collect the sample from the first or final draining.
Consult your AVSpare dealer for complete information and assistance in establishing a Scheduled Oil Sampling program for your equipment.
Accumulated grease and oil on a machine is a fire hazard. Remove this debris with steam cleaning or high pressure water, at least every 1000 hours or each time any significant quantity of oil is spilled on a machine.
Drain water from the swing gear housing prior to freezing weather.
1 kilopascal (kPa) is approximately equal to 0.01 bar (kg/cm2).
Wipe all fittings, caps and plugs before servicing.
Keep a close watch for leaks. If leaking is observed, find the source and correct the leak.
Check the fluid levels more frequently than the recommended periods if leaking is suspected or observed.
Bolt Torques for Ground Engaging Tools
General Torque for Standard Bolts, Nuts and Taperlock Studs
The following charts give general torques for bolts, nuts and taperlock studs of SAE Grade 5 or better quality.
Torques for Bolts and Nuts With Standard Threads
Torques for Taperlock Studs
General Torque for Metric Fasteners
Be very careful never to mix metric with U.S. customary (standard) fasteners. Mismatched or incorrect fasteners will cause machine damage or malfunction and may even result in personal injury.
Original fasteners removed from the machine should be saved for reassembly whenever possible. If new fasteners are needed, they must be of the same size and grade as the ones that are being replaced.
The material strength identification is usually shown on the bolt head by numbers (8.8, 10.9, etc.). The following chart gives standard torques for bolts and nuts with Grade 8.8.
Standard Torque for Hose Clamps - Worm Drive Band Type
The following chart gives the torques for initial installation of hose clamps on new hose and for reassembly or retightening of hose clamps on existing hose.